The department was founded in 1955 by the prominent scientist, academician M. M. Amosov as the Department of Thoracic Surgery because surgeons were to master sophisticated and specified techniques of thoracic surgery. In 1955 Full Professor O. M. Avilova started working at the department.
In 1976 the department became the Department of Thoracic and Abdominal, and Vascular Surgery. Academician O. O. Shalimov headed the department. The department's lines of investigation were studying digestive and cardiovascular diseases, developing surgical modes of treatment. In 1981 - 1992 the department was headed by MD, Dr. Sc., Full Professor S. O. Shalimov.
In 1992 - 2007 the head of the department was MD, Dr. Sc., Full Professor V. F. Saienko, famous scientist and surgeon, Director of the Institute of Surgery and Transplantology of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Corresponding Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, Winner of the State Prize of the USSR.
In 2007 - 2008 the head of the department was MD, Dr. Sc., Full Professor B. S. Polinkevych.
In 2008- 2015 the department was headed by MD, Dr. Sc., Full Professor Yu. V. Poliachenko.
Since 2015 the head of the department has been MD, Dr. Sc., Full ProfessorOleksandr Yu. Usenko.