Philosophical education is an integral and very important component of postgraduate training of doctors for research and practical activity. It allows to raise the level of humanitarian education of doctors, PhD students, masters and interns in the history of world philosophy, philosophy of science, philosophical anthropology, philosophy of education, ethics and deontology of medicine in accordance with the achievements of philosophical thought and modern requirements of humanization and transformation of the medical area.

Postgraduate training of physicians and pharmacists includes outlook developing, deontological and theoretical parts, which were taught at the Department of Philosophy throughout the entire history of NMAPE. 

In the pre-war period and during the first years after the war, the lectures and workshops on the mentioned issues were held by the part-time teachers of Kyiv leading educational institutions (in particular, by Associate Professor A. F. Viievskyi, Full Professor S. S. Hurvich). 

The Department of Marxism-Leninism was founded in 1948; first it was headed by A. M. Okun and then, since 1952, by Associate Professor V. U. Brik. In the second half of the 1960-ties the Department of Marxism-Leninism was transformed into the Course of Philosophical Issues in Medicine and Biology. In 1968 the course was headed by Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor O.O. Davydenko. 

In 1988 the course was chaired by Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor V.L. Kulinichenko (a medical doctor by speciality), who headed the recreated Department of Marxism-Leninism (since 1993 – the Course of Philosophy) that year. 

In March 1999, the Department of Humanitarian Disciplines, comprising the Philosophy Course and the Foreign Languages Course, was founded at the Academy under the leadership of Associate Professor V. L. Kulinichenko. In 2005 the Department of Philosophy was founded. 

Since 2015 the department of philosophy of NMAPO is headed by Svitlana V. Pustovit, Doctor of  Science (Dr.Sc.) in Philosophy, PhD. in Biology, Full Professor. Professor S.V. Pustovit is the President of Ukrainian Association of Bioethics, the Expert of UNESCO on Bioethics in Ukraine and the Chair of Ethics Commission at Shupik National Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education.